Tides and Sea Level
People interested in tidal analysis of sea level data, whether for study
of the tides themselves or for the purpose of data quality control,
could find the following useful for the background science:
Simple explanations of tides can be found through:
A Tidal Glossary (edited by David Pugh) is contained in the
American Meteorological Society Glossary of Meteorology (ed. T S Glickman)
2000 and also in the 2004 book by David Pugh referred to above.
A history of tidal research can be found in:
- Cartwright, D.E. 1999. Tides - a scientific history. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. 292pp.
For a discussion of primarily the geological information to be extracted
from the PSMSL data set, see:
- Emery, K.O. and Aubrey, D.G. 1991. Sea levels, land levels, and tide
gauges. New York: Springer-Verlag. 237pp.
Sea level changes over various timescales and their impacts are discussed in:
- Douglas, B.C., Kearney, M.S. and Leatherman, S.P. 2000. Sea level rise:
history and consequences. Academic Press. 272pp.
Sea Level Science: Theme Volume of Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society
- Church, J.A., Woodworth, P.L., Aarup, T. and Wilson, W.S. 2010.
Understanding Sea-level Rise and Variability
ISBN 978-1-4443-3451-7 (hardback) 978-1-4443-3452-4 (paperback). 428pp.
For a description of sea level changes on geological timescales, see:
- Pirazzoli, P.A. 1996. Sea-level changes: the last 20,000 years.
Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. 211pp.
For a description of tsunamis and their impacts, see:
- Bryant, E. 2001. Tsunami. The underrated hazard.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
For sea levels measured from space by satellite radar altimetry, see:
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Reports
For an extensive discussion of recent climate change-related aspects of sea
level, and of impacts of sea level change, see the Scientific Assessment
Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. These
include reports from Working Groups I and II (Scientific Assessment and
Impacts of Climate Change).
Chapters on sea level in the Second Assessment Report (SAR) from 1995 can be
- Warrick, R.A., Le Provost, C., Meier, M.F., Oerlemans, J. and
Woodworth, P.L. 1996. Lead authors of Chapter 7 (Changes in sea level)
of Climate Change 1995. The science of climate change. Contribution of
working group I to the second assessment report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds. J.T.Houghton, L.G.Meira
Filho, B.A.Callander, N.Harris, A.Kattenberg and K.Maskell. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. 572pp.
- Bijlsma, L. et al. 1996.
Lead authors of Chapter 9 (Coastal
zones and small islands) of Climate Change 1995.
Impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change:
scientific-technical analysis. Contribution of working group II to the
second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, eds. R.T.Watson, M.C.Zinyowera and R.H.Moss. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. 879pp.
The IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) from 2001 again included Working Groups I and II
and also a WG III on Mitigation Strategies. Full texts
of these reports, together with Summaries for Policymakers for each
Working Group (i.e. summaries of the whole reports, not just sea level) can
still be downloaded from
the IPCC web site.
The sea level chapter in the TAR Working Group I report can
be referenced as:
Church, J.A., Gregory, J.M., Huybrechts, P., Kuhn, M., Lambeck, K.,
Nhuan, M.T., Qin, D. and Woodworth, P.L. 2001. Changes in sea level.
In, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working
Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change. (eds. J.T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M.
Noguer, P.J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell and C.A. Johnson).
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 881pp.
In the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) from 2007, sea level changes were
included in a chapter which also discussed hydrographic changes in the
ocean. The reference is:
Bindoff, N. and Willebrand, J. 2007.
Chapter 5: Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level.
pp.385-432 in, IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical
Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth
Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(eds. Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M.,
Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M. and Miller, H.L.) Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 996pp.
and this can also be downloaded from the IPCC web site.
The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) was published in 2013, and contains an entire
chapter dedicated to sea level rise:
Church, J.A., P.U. Clark, A. Cazenave, J.M. Gregory, S. Jevrejeva, A. Levermann, M.A. Merrifield, G.A. Milne, R.S.
Nerem, P.D. Nunn, A.J. Payne, W.T. Pfeffer, D. Stammer and A.S. Unnikrishnan, 2013: Sea Level Change. In:
Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
[Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung,
A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and
New York, NY, USA
UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) and UK Climate Projections (UKCP) Reports
For people in the UK, the
UKCIP reports on future climate may also be
Also see the recent
UKCP09 report which includes a
marine and coastal projections component.